Who Cares about the Civil War?

by Harry Browne

I believe an understanding of the Civil War has great relevance

to the future of liberty in America.

It may be the most misunderstood of all American wars. And so much

of what we lament today — government intrusions on civil liberties,

unlimited taxation, corporate welfare, disregarding of the Constitution,

funny money — date back to programs started during the Civil War.

Although slavery was an ever-present political issue in the early

1800s, it wasn’t the immediate cause of the war. In fact, Abraham

Lincoln in his first inaugural address vowed that he wouldn’t interfere

with slavery. You can read his speech at http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/1inaug.htm

He also said the North wouldn’t invade the South unless necessary

to collect taxes.

Before the war, the main concern about slavery was whether new

states and territories would come into the Union as free states

or slave states. This affected the balance of power in Congress,

and both Northerners and Southerners worried that the other region

might dominate Congress.

Taxes

Why then was the Civil War fought?

As with most wars, there’s no single answer. But the predominant

cause was taxation.

Before his election, Lincoln had promoted very high tariffs (federal

taxes on foreign imports), using the receipts to build railroads,

canals, roads, and other federal pork-barrel projects.

The tariffs protected Northern manufacturers from foreign competition,

and were paid mostly by the non-manufacturing South, while most

of the proposed boondoggles were to be built in the North. Thus

the South was being forced to subsidize Northern corporate welfare.

Secession

When Lincoln was elected, South Carolina saw a grim future ahead

and seceded. Other Southern states quickly followed suit. No declaration

of secession gave slavery as the reason.

Lincoln asserted that no state had a right to secede from the Union

— even though several geographical regions had considered secession

before. Few people thought the Union couldn’t survive if some states

decided to leave.

Upon seceding, the Confederates took over all federal forts and

other facilities in the South, with no opposition from Lincoln.

The last remaining federal facilities were Fort Pickens in Florida

and Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Lincoln at first promised to

let the South have Fort Sumter, but then tried to reinforce it.

The South moved to confiscate it — shelling the Fort for many hours.

(No one was killed or even seriously injured.)

Why was Fort Sumter important? Because it was a major tariff-collecting

facility in the harbor at Charleston. So long as the Union controlled

it, the South would still have to pay Lincoln’s oppressive tariffs.

Although there had been only scattered Northern opposition to the

secessions, the shelling of Fort Sumter (like the bombing of Pearl

Harbor almost a century later) incited many Northerners to call

for war against the South. The South’s seizure of Fort Sumter caused

many Northerners to notice that the South would no longer be subsidizing

Northern manufacturing.

As the war began, the sole issue was restoration of the Union —

not ending slavery. Only in 1863 did the Emancipation Proclamation

go into effect, and it didn’t actually free a single slave — just

like so many laws today that don’t actually perform the purpose

for which they were promoted. (The Proclamation is at http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/emancipate.htm

The Damage

The Lincoln Presidency imposed a police state upon America — North

and South. He shut down newspapers that disagreed with him, suspended

habeas corpus, imprisoned civilians without trials, and went to

war — all without Congressional authority.

Using war as an excuse, he increased government dramatically —

just as future Presidents would do. He rewarded his political friends

with pork-barrel projects, flooded the country with paper money,

established a national banking system to finance a large federal

debt, and imposed the first income tax. He also destroyed the balance

between the executive and Congressional branches, and between the

federal government and the states.

He set in motion many precedents we suffer from today. That’s why

it’s important to understand the Civil War for what it was, not

what the mythmakers want it to be.

Alternatives

Was slavery an evil? Of course.

Is it a blessing that it ended? Of course.

Was it necessary for 140,414 people to die in order to end slavery?

Definitely not. The U.S. was the only western country that ended

slavery through violence — outside of Haiti (where it ended through

a slave revolt). During the 19th century dozens of nations ended

slavery peaceably.

What Was Lincoln?

Was Lincoln opposed to slavery? Yes, he became an abolitionist

in the mid-1850s, although he said he didn’t know how slavery could

be ended.

Lincoln’s fans have portrayed him as the Great Emancipator, Honest

Abe, who with great courage and single-minded determination fought

a Civil War to free the slaves. Many of his detractors have tried

to show that he was actually a racist.

I think it’s important to understand that, more than anything else,

he was a politician. Throughout his career he shaded the truth for

political advantage, he played both sides against the middle, he

lied about his opponents, and he used government force to get what

he wanted. Like so many politicians, he continually uttered platitudes

about liberty while doing everything in his power to curtail it.

His idolaters applaud him for being a dictatorial politician, saying

this was precisely what America needed in 1861. No historian believes

he acted within the Constitution.

Importance of Studying the Civil War

I believe the study of the origins and conduct of the Civil War

is an important part of a libertarian education.

Although the Progressive era, the New Deal, and the Great Society

each caused government growth to accelerate, only the Civil War

caused a complete break with the past. It transformed a federation

of states into a national government. It introduced the elements

of big government that later movements would build on. And it set

in motion the disregard for the Constitution that’s taken for granted

today.

You’ll also find parallels between the Civil War and today’s War

on Terrorism.

Lincoln and the Civil War are fascinating subjects. I’ve read numerous

books about them, and I can highly recommend two recent books that

provide an excellent introduction.

Jeffrey Hummel’s book Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men (published

in 1996) and Thomas DiLorenzo’s The Real Lincoln (2002) are both

well-documented and very well-written. You’ll find reading either

of them (or both) to be an adventure, rather than a task.

Hummel’s book is longer, more complete, and perhaps more balanced.

DiLorenzo’s is faster reading. Both are well worth their inexpensive

prices.

We’re fortunate that Laissez Faire Books carries an enormous assortment

of pro-liberty titles, and makes it easy to order books online.

You can view the site at http://www.lfb.org/index.cfm?aid=10432

(you may want to bookmark it for easy reference).

Hummel’s book is only $14.95, and you can get more information

about it at:

http://www.lfb.org/product.cfm?op=view&pid=HS7743&aid=10432.

DiLorenzo’s book is only $17.50, and is at:

http://www.lfb.org/product.cfm?op=view&pid=HS8594&aid=10432.

Happy reading!

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Harry Browne is Director of Public Policy at American Liberty Foundation.

His usual Liberty & Peace Commentary appears on LibertyWire

each Friday.

ADDRESS: American Liberty Foundation

6718 Lenclair St.

Alexandria, VA 22306